Last Updated: 2003 04 11

Terminology

bulletAnatomy
bulletThe body as a weapon
bulletDirections
bulletGeneral terms
bulletNumeral
bulletTournament
bulletTechniques


 

ANATOMY

HEAD AND NECK

AGO--------------------------------------CHIN
HANA------------------------------------NOSE
ATAMA----------------------------------HEAD
KAO--------------------------------------FACE
GAMMEN-------------------------------FACE
KUBI-------------------------------------NECK
KUCHI-----------------------------------MOUTH
ME----------------------------------------EYE (S)
MIMI--------------------------------------EAR (S)
NODO-----------------------------------THROAT

TORSO

HARA------------------------------------ABDOMEN
HIZO--------------------------------------SPLEEN
KATA------------------------------------SHOULDER
KINTAMA------------------------------TESTICLES, GROIN
KOSHI-----------------------------------HIPS
MIZO-OCHI----------------------------SOLAR PLEXUS
MUNE-----------------------------------CHEST
ROKKOSTU--------------------------RIB (S)
SAKOSTU-----------------------------CLAVICLE
SENAKA-------------------------------BACK
SHINZO---------------------------------HEART
SOKEI-----------------------------------GROIN
TANDEM-------------------------------UNDER BELLY

ARMS

EMPI-------------------------------------ELBOW
HAISHU--------------------------------BACK OF THE HAND
HIJI---------------------------------------ELBOW

KANSETSU---------------------------JOINT (ANY)
KENTOS-------------------------------KNUCKLES

KOBUSHI------------------------------FIST
KOKEN---------------------------------SUPERIOR PART OF THE WRIST

KOTE------------------------------------FOREARM (TOPSIDE)
SHOTEI---------------------------------HEEL OF THE HAND
SHUTO----------------------------------SIDE OF THE HAND (KNIFE HAND)

TE-----------------------------------------HAND
TEKUBI---------------------------------WRIST
TOHO------------------------------------ARC CREATE FOR THE THUMB AND THE INDICES

UDE--------------------------------------ARM
WAKI-------------------------------------ARM PIT (UNDER ARM)
YUBI--------------------------------------FINGER (S)

LEGS

ASHI------------------------------------FOOT
ASHIKUBI----------------------------ANKLE
ASHIYUBI----------------------------TOE (S)
CHUSOKU--------------------------BALL OF THE FOOT

FUTO-MOM-------------------------THIGH (S)
HAISOKU----------------------------INSTEP

HIZA------------------------------------KNEES
KAHANSHIN------------------------LOWER BODY
KANSETSU-------------------------JOINT (ANY)
SUNE----------------------------------SHIN (S)
TSUMASAKI------------------------TIPS OF THE TOES

BODY WEAPONS

HANDS AND ARMS

Empi------------------------------------Elbow
Haisho---------------------------------Backhand
Haito------------------------------------Inner knife hand
Hiji---------------------------------------Elbow
Hiraken--------------------------------Flat fist
Hitosashiyubi-----------------------Forefinger
Ippon-Ken----------------------------Knuckle fist
Ippon Nukite------------------------Single finger
Keiko-----------------------------------Chicken beak hand
Kobushi-------------------------------Fist
Koken----------------------------------Wrist top
Kote-------------------------------------Forearm
Nakayubi------------------------------Middle finger
Nihon-ken----------------------------Two knuckle fist
Nihon-nukite------------------------Two finger
Nukite----------------------------------Finger
Seiken---------------------------------Fore fist
Shotei----------------------------------Palm heel
Shuto----------------------------------Knife hand
Tettsui---------------------------------Bottom fist
Toho-----------------------------------Sword peak hand
Uraken--------------------------------Back fist

LEGS AND FEET

Chusoku-----------------------------Ball of foot
Haisoku------------------------------Instep
Hiza------------------------------------Knee
Kakato--------------------------------Heel
Sokuto--------------------------------Foot edge
Sune-----------------------------------Shin
Teisoku-------------------------------Arch of foot

TOURNEMENT TERMINOLOGY

Aka--------------------------------------Red
Aka no kachi------------------------Red victory
Awasete ippon---------------------Point totaling ippon
Chui------------------------------------Warning for illegal technique
Encho-sen---------------------------Extension bout
Fukushin-----------------------------Corner judge
Genten--------------------------------Minus point for fouls
Hajime---------------------------------Start
Hansoku Chi---------------------Official warning
Hansoku Make--------------------Loss by disqualification
Hantei---------------------------------Decision (of judge)
Hantei Onegaishimasu--------Judge decision please
Hata------------------------------------Flag
Ippon----------------------------------Full point
Jo-gai---------------------------------Outside fighting area
Jo-nai---------------------------------Inside Fighting area
Jun-yusho--------------------------Runner-up
Kachi---------------------------------Victory
Ni-in-----------------------------------Second place; runner-up
Sekai Taikai------------------------World Championships
Shiai----------------------------------Tournament; match
Shiai-jo-------------------------------Fighting area
Shik-kaku---------------------------Disqualification
Shinpan(-in)-----------------------Judge, referee
Shiro----------------------------------White
Shiro no kachi--------------------White victory
Shushin-----------------------------Center referee
Tameshiwari-----------------------Board breaking
Waza-ari-----------------------------Half point
Yame----------------------------------Stop
Yusei kachi-------------------------Win by superiority
Yusho--------------------------------First place
Zenkoku Taikai-------------------National Championships
Zoko----------------------------------Continue fighting

DIRECTIONS

GENERAL

AGE / KEAGE--------------------RISING
CHUDAN--------------------------MIDDLE LEVEL (TORSO)
ENKEI------------------------------CIRCULAR
GEDAN-----------------------------LOWER LEVEL
GYAKU-----------------------------REVERSE
JODAN-----------------------------UPPER LEVEL
JUJI---------------------------------CROSSED
JUN---------------------------------STRAIGHT OFF SHOULDER
MAWASHI------------------------CIRCULAR / ROUND
MOROTE--------------------------BOTH HANDS
NANAME--------------------------DIAGONAL (LY)
OI-------------------------------------LUNGING
OROSHI---------------------------DESCENDING
SAYU-------------------------------LEFT AND RIGHT
SHOMEN--------------------------FRONT
SOTO-------------------------------OUTSIDE
TOBI--------------------------------JUMP
UCHI--------------------------------INSIDE
YOKO-------------------------------SIDE

HAPPO (Eight directions from where all movement generates)

MAE----------------------------------FRONT (CENTER)
USHIRO----------------------------BACK
MIGI----------------------------------RIGHT
HIDARI------------------------------LEFT
MIGI-MAE--------------------------RIGHT FRONT
MIGI-USHIRO--------------------RIGHT BACK
HIDARI-MAE---------------------LEFT FRONT
HIDARI-USHIRO----------------LEFT BACK
NANAME--------------------------DIAGONAL (LY)

LEVELS

CHUDAN----------------------------MIDDLE LEVEL; TORSO AREA
GEDAN------------------------------LOWER LEVEL; GROIN AND BELOW
JODAN-------------------------------UPPER LEVEL; NECK AND ABOVE
JOHANSHIN-----------------------UPPER BODY, ABOVE WAIST
KAHANSHIN----------------------LOWER BODY, FROM GROIN DOWN

GENERAL TERMINOLOGY

CLASS TERMINOLOGY (START AND FINISHED)
To start the class:

SEIZA-SHITE--------------------SIT DOWN IN KNEELING POSITION (from higher to lower belts)
SHINDEN NI REI---------------BOW TO THE SHINDEN (TEMPLE)
MOKUSO--------------------------
EYES CLOSED FOR MEDITATION
MOKUSO-YAME----------------OPEN AYES AND FINISH MEDITATION
TATE-KUDASAE---------------STAND STRAIGHT or STAND UP
(from higher to lower belts)

To finished the class:

SEIZA-SHITE--------------------SIT DOWN IN KNEELING POSITION (from higher to lower belts)
DOJO KUN-----------------------TRAINING OATH IS RECITED
SHINDEN NI REI---------------BOW TO THE SHINDEN (TEMPLE)
MOKUSO--------------------------
EYES CLOSED FOR MEDITATION
MOKUSO-YAME----------------OPEN AYES AND FINISH MEDITATION
KANCHO-NI-REI----------------BOW TO KANCHO (say OSU! with reverence)
SHIHAN/SENSEI NI ARIGATO GOSAI MASHITA-----BOW TEACHERS(OSU! with reverence)
SEMPAI NI ARIGATO GOSAI MASHITA------------BOW INSTRUCTORS(OSU! with reverence)
OTOGAI NI ARIGATO GOSAI MASHITA------------BOW EACH OTHER(OSU! with reverence)
TATE-KUDASAE---------------STAND STRAIGHT or STAND UP
(from higher to lower belts)

CLASS TERMINOLOGY (TRAINING)

ASHI O FUITE--------------------SHAKE YOUR FEET
CHIKARA IRETE-----------------WITH TENSION, WITH POWER
FUITE--------------------------------SHAKE (HANDS OR FEET)
FUMIKONDE----------------------MOVE (STEP) ACROSS FLOOR
GEIKO HAJIME------------------TRAINGING BEGIN
HAJIME-----------------------------START; GO
HANTAI-----------------------------OPPOSITE SIDE
IBUKI--------------------------------FORCED TENSION (YANG) BREATHING
IDO-KIHON------------------------MOVING BASICS
IDO-GEIKO------------------------MOVING BASICS
KAITEN-----------------------------TURNING AROUND; REVOLVING
KAMAETE-------------------------ON GUARD; TAKE YOUR STANCE
KIAI-----------------------------------PRIMAL YELL; GUT SCREAM
KIAI IRITE--------------------------YELL KIAI
KIHON------------------------------BASICS
KIHON-GEIKO-------------------BASICS TECHNIQUES
KIME---------------------------------FOCUS
KUMITE----------------------------SPARRING
IPPON KUMITE-----------------ONE STEP SPARRING
JIYU KUMITE--------------------FREE SPARRING
JISSEN KUMITE----------------FULL CONTACT FIGHTING; NO HOLDS BARRED
MA-AI--------------------------------RELATIONSHIP OF TIME AND SPACE BETWEEN YOU AND YOUR OPPONENT
MAWATTE-------------------------TURN AROUND
NAORE------------------------------RETURN TO START
NOGARE---------------------------NEGATIVE-RETREAT BREATHING METHOD
OSU!------------------------I UNDERSTAND; RESPECT AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO OTHERS
OSU! YOROSHIKU ONEGAI SHIMASU-------ASK OTHER TO BE YOUR PARTNER
OSU! ARIGATO GOSAI MASHITA-----THANKS YOUR PARTNER FOR WORKING WITH YOU

OTOGAI----------------------------EACH OTHER
REI-----------------------------------BOW
SAHARI----------------------------(GOING) BACKWARD
SEIZA-------------------------------KNEELING POSITION
SHITSUREI SHIMASU-------EXCUSE ME FOR BEING LATE
TATE--------------------------------IN STRAIT LINE

TO O FUITE-----------------------SHAKE YOUR HANDS
URA---------------------------------OPPOSITE,  REVERSE; BACKWARDS-WHERE TECHNIQUES ARE DONE STEPPING AROUND BEHIND INSTEAD OF STRAIGHT FORWARD
YAKUSOKU KUMITE---------PRE-ARRANGED SPARRING
YAME-------------------------------STOP, FINISH
YASUME---------------------------REST; AT EASE
YOI-----------------------------------READY
YUK-KURI-------------------------SLOWLY

NUMBERS

THE NUMBER SYSTEM

 

Japan possesses two number systems, one of which is native in origin, the other Chinese.
The Japanese numbers are used in statements concerning age, and when discussing quantities of objects; the Chinese numbers are used for measures, money and distances. Beyond 10, only Chinese numerals are used.

Japanese Chinese
1 = hitotsu, hito- 1 = ichi
2 = futatsu, futa- 2 = ni
3 = mittsu, mi- 3 = san
4 = yotsu, yon yo- 4 = shi *
5 = itsutu, itsu- 5 = go
6 = muttsu, mu- 6 = roku
7 = nanatsu, nana- 7 = shichi
8 = yattsu, ya- 8 = hachi
9 = kokonotsu, kokono 9 = ku
10= to, to- 10 = ju 
  11 = ju-ichi 
  12 = ju-ni
  20 = niju
  30 = sanju
  40 = yonju
  50 = goju
  60 = rokuju
  70 = nanaju
  80 = hachiju
  90 =kyuju
  100 = hyaku
  1000 = sen
  10000 = man

 Because in Japanese shi is the root of a word meaning death, the Chinese shi for 4 is rarely used; more commonly employed is the Japanese yon. The use of the two systems is complex, but the karateka will generally get by with a knowledge of the ten basic Chinese numbers.


DO -------------------------------------------DEGREES
HYAKU-HACHIJU-DO----------------180 DEGREES
KYUJU-DO--------------------------------90 DEGREES
YONJUGO-DO---------------------------45 DEGREES
KAI ------------------------------------------TIMES
IK-KAI---------------------------------------ONCE
NIKAI----------------------------------------TWICE
SANKAI------------------------------------THREE TIMES
YONKAI------------------------------------FOUR TIMES
GOKAI--------------------------------------FIVE TIMES
ROK-KAI-----------------------------------SIX TIMES
NANAKAI----------------------------------SEVEN TIMES
HAK-KAI-----------------------------------HEIGHT TIMES
KYU-KAI-----------------------------------NINE TIMES
JUK-KAI-----------------------------------TEN TIMES
GOJUK-KAI-------------------------------50 TIMES
HYAK-KAI--------------------------------100 TIMES

TECHNIQUES (waza)

Ashi Barai--------------------------------Foot Sweep
Barai----------------------------------------Reap; Parry
Chokuzuki-------------------------------Straight (direct) punch
Enkei---------------------------------------Circular
Geri-----------------------------------------Kick
Gyaku-------------------------------------Reverse; Opposite
Juji-----------------------------------------Crossed
Kake---------------------------------------Hooking
Kekomi-----------------------------------Thrusting Kick
Geri-Waza-------------------------------Kicking Techniques
Kizami------------------------------------Jab
Morote------------------------------------Two Handed
Nage---------------------------------------Throw
Oi--------------------------------------------Lunge
Taoshiwaza----------------------------Takedowns
Tobi----------------------------------------Jump
Tobi Geri---------------------------------Jumping kick
Tsuki---------------------------------------Punch
Uke-----------------------------------------Block
Uke waza--------------------------------Blocking techniques
Waza---------------------------------------Technique

BASIC TECHNIQUES

SEIKEN--------------------------------------FORE FIST
TSUKI----------------------------------------PUNCH
Seiken Chudan Tsuki------------------Middle punch using your fist
Seiken Jodan Tsuki--------------------Upper punch using your fist
Seiken Ago Uchi-------------------------Chin strike using your fist 
Seiken Mawashi Uchi------------------Roundhouse punch using your fist 

URAKEN------------------------------------BACK FIST
Uraken Shomen Uchi------------------Back fist strike to front
Uraken Sayu Uchi-----------------------Back fist strike to side
Uraken Hizo Uchi------------------------Back fist strike to spleen (ribs)
Uraken Shita Uchi-----------------------Back fist strike to stomach

HIJI-------------------------------------------ELBOW
Jodan Hiji Ate----------------------------Elbow to head
Chudan Hiji Ate-------------------------Elbow to midsection
Hiji Age Uchi-----------------------------Rising Elbow strike
Hiji Oroshi Uchi-------------------------Downward Elbow strike

UKE-------------------------------------------BLOCKS
Jodan Uke---------------------------------Upper block
Chudan Uchi Uke-----------------------Middle Outside block
Chudan Soto Uke-----------------------Middle inside block
Gedan Barai--------------------------------Downward parry
Chudan Uchi Uke Gedan Barai----Simultaneous inside block and downward parry

SHUTO----------------------------------------KNIFE HAND
Shuto Gammen Uchi--------------------Knife hand strike to head
Shuto Sakotsu Uchi---------------------Knife hand strike to clavicle
Shuto Sakotsu Uchikomi-------------Driving Knife hand to clavicle
Shuto Hizo Uchi--------------------------Knife hand strike to spleen
Shuto Uchi Uchi--------------------------Inside Knife hand to neck

GERI(KERI)--------------------------------KICK
Uchi Mawashi Geri---------------------Inside crescent kick
Soto Mawashi Geri---------------------Outside crescent kick
Mea Keage Geri--------------------------Rising front kick
Hiza Geri------------------------------------Knee kick
Kin Geri-------------------------------------Groin kick
Mea Geri------------------------------------Front kick
Mawashi Geri-----------------------------Roundhouse kick
Yoko Keage Geri------------------------Rising side kick
Yoko Geri----------------------------------Side kick
Kansetsu Geri---------------------------Joint kick
Ushiro Geri--------------------------------Back kick

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